## Anova & T independent: Quantitative Analysis

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Test number one: The T- independent test was used to test the null hypothesis that crime perceptions between Oman and UK are equal against the alternative hypothesis that there is a difference.

Each participant that took part in answering any of the survey three domains is represented within the below data. Not all participants took part in answering all the questions in the survey.

Table 12:

 Crime assessment Mean Std. Deviation P Value Frequency Male 3.88 0.66 0.025 103 Female 4.1 0.69 0.025 99

There was a significant difference in the mean scores of crime assessment and shame for gender female (M= 4.10, SD= 0.69) and male (M= 3.88, SD= 0.66) conditions; t (200) = -2.258, p = 0.025.

Table 14:

 Crime Punishment Mean Std. Deviation P Value Frequency Male 3.325 0.5864 0.953 104 Female 3.33 0.5438 0.953 96

There was not a significant difference in the mean scores of crime punishment female (M= 3.33, SD= 0.54) male (M= 3.33, SD= 0.59) conditions; t (198) = -.058, p = 0.953.

Table 16:

 Crime seriousness Perception Mean Std. Deviation P Value Frequency Males 36.73 9.25 0.83 110 Females 36.47 8.14 0.83 94

There was not a significant difference in the mean scores of crime seriousness perceptions for female (M= 2.16, SD= 0.46) and male (M= 2.18, SD= 0.54) conditions; t (189) = 0.241, p = 0.810

Table 15:

 Crime Punishment Mean Std. Deviation P Value Frequency United Kingdom 3.385 0.4579 0.142 105 Oman 3.265 0.6604 0.142 95

There was not a significant) difference in the mean crime punishment scores for United Kingdom (M= 3.39, SD= 0.46) and Oman (M= 3.27, SD= 0.66) conditions; t (198) = 1.503, p = 0.142.

Table 13:

 Crime assessment Mean Std. Deviation P Value Frequency United Kingdom 4.08 0.63 0.05 106 Oman 3.89 0.73 0.05 96

There was a marginal significant difference in the mean crime assessment scores for United Kingdom (M= 4.10, SD= 0.63) and Oman (M= 3.89, SD= 0.73) conditions; t (200) = 1.938, p = 0.054.

Table 17:

 Perception Mean Std. Deviation P Value Frequency United Kingdom 40.8 7.83 0 106 Oman 32.07 7.31 0 98

There was a significant difference in the mean scores of crime seriousness perceptions for United Kingdom (M= 2.44, SD= 0.45) and Oman (M= 1.90, SD=0.42) conditions; t (189) = 7.960, p = 0.0001.

 Crime assessment item number Cronbach Alpha Crime assessment and shame  item number Cronbach Alpha Crime punishment item number Cronbach Alpha 15 0.62 13 0.35 17 0.86

Cronbach’s Alpha for each of the three domains

 Crime Assessment Crime Punishment Crime seriousness perceptions Mean 3.99 3.33 2.17 Standard  Deviation

Summary of statistics of all three domains

The results for the T independent test reject the null hypothesis that crime perceptions and attitudes towards crime shame will be the same in both countries. The results indicate that United Kingdom ( country) and females ( gender) have a higher perception towards crime than Oman.

Quantitative Analysis

The two-way ANOVA is used to determine whether there is an interaction

Table :  Crime Assessment

 Male UK Male Oman Female UK Female Oman Total UK Total Oman Mean 3.9 3.8 4.21 3.95 4.1 3.89 Std. Deviation 0.53 3.84 0.69 0.68 0.63 0.73

Mean and Standard deviation score for domain one crime assessment in regards to the independent variables gender and coutry

There was no statistically significant interaction effect between gender and country of residence on “crime assessment” score, F (1, 198) = 0.902, p= 0.343, partial η2 = 0.005.

Table: Crime Punishment

 Male UK Male Oman Female UK Female Oman Total UK Total Oman Mean 3.4 3.25 3.37 3.28 3.39 3.27 Std. Deviation 0.43 0.7 0.48 0.61 0.46 0.66

Mean and Standard deviation score for domain two crime punishment in regards to the independent variables gender and country

There was no statistically significant interaction effect between gender and country of residence on “crime punishment” score, F (1, 196) = 0.163, p= 0.687, partial η2 = 0.001. The simple main effect for gender was not significant, F (1, 196) = 0.0001, p= 0.998, partial η2 =0.0001. The simple main effect for country of residence was also not significant, F (1, 196) = 2.175, p= 0.142, partial η2 =0. 011.

Table: Crime seriousness perceptions

 Male UK Male Oman Female UK Female Oman Total UK Total Oman Mean 2.52 1.8 2.29 1.99 2.4 1.9 Std. Deviation 0.44 0.39 0.42 0.45 0.45 0.42

Mean and Standard deviation score for domain three crime seriousness and perceptions in regards to the independent variables gender and country

There was a statistically significant interaction effect between gender and country of residence on “attitude” score, F (1, 187) = 9.685, p= 0.002, partial η2 = 0.049. The simple main effect for gender was not significant, F (1, 187) = 0.437, p= 0.510, partial η2 =0.002. The simple main effect for country of residence was statistically significant, F (1, 187) = 61.989, p= 0.0001, partial

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