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Media Cultures

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Essay Outline

  1. Introduction
  • The opening statement will introduce the subject of regulation in the media stating the how and why it is done.
  • A brief history of media regulation will also be provided in the introductory paragraph.
  • It will introduce Hesmondhalgh’s article on media regulation and state his view on media regulation.
  • The paragraph will conclude with a thesis statement stating that changes in the media over the last thirty years should be termed less as deregulation and more as reregulation as supported by Hesmondhalgh in his study (2002).
  1. Body
  • The first paragraph of the essay’s body will argue in support of Hesmondhalgh’s opinion and the thesis statement.
  • The topic sentence will argue that Hesmondhalgh is right in terming these changes as reregulation as opposed to deregulation judging from the different meanings of these terms (2002).
  • The paragraph will state the definitions of de-regulation and reregulation according to deregulation.
  • The paragraph will point out the crucial difference between these two terms in order to argue out that the changes made have been more of reregulation as opposed to deregulation as per the above definitions.
  • The first paragraph will conclude by stating that these are however sometimes seen as cultural marketization as opposed to deregulation or reregulation.
  • The second paragraph will begin by explaining the term cultural marketisation according to Hesmondhalgh.
  • The paragraph will highlight the relationship between marketisation and how it can be used as a better term to highlight changes than deregulation and reregulation.
  • The paragraph will close by arguing that in as much as marketisation may be appropriate to describe these changes, the fact that the media is not purely a profit making business, but an institution with certain responsibilities to the society weakens the argument.
  • The third paragraph in the body section will start by highlighting the history of the evolution of the media industry.
  • The paragraph will highlight how the government has tried to maintain a certain degree of control over the media owing to its role in society.
  • The paragraph will introduce the concepts of market model of media and public sphere of media as highlighted by Croteau and Hoynes (2006).
  • The paragraph will explain how both the market model and the public sphere model function.
  • These differences will be used to support the point made in paragraph 2 that the media can never be viewed as purely a profit based business hence creating further holes in the marketisation argument.
  • The fourth paragraph will close by highlighting that the control over the media is just an extension of the many threats to liberty in the society.
  • The final paragraph in the body will introduce the concept of libertarian concept and provide the definition according to Lessig (1999).
  • The paragraph will explain how liberty cannot be under threat from just one force but from many forces as highlighted by Lessig (1999).
  • The paragraph will use Lessig’s dot theory to explain that the media’s liberty is not just threatened by the regulations from the government but from other aspects of the society as well (1999).
  • The paragraph will thus emphasize that reregulation is the appropriate term for explaining the changes in media over the last 30 years considering that it has not just been reregulated by the government but by other societal forces as well.
  1. Conclusion
  • The conclusion will restate the thesis statement made in the opening paragraph.
  • It will highlight how the essay has argued in favor of the thesis statement while at the same time addressing possible counter arguments.
  • It will close by suggesting that reregulation will only increase in future as opposed to decreasing as most people expect.


Croteau, D & Hoynes, W 2006, The Business of Media, Pine Forge Press, London.

Hesmondhalgh, D 2002, The Cultural Industries, Sage Publications, London.

Lessig, L  1999, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Perseus Books Group, London

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