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Pathophysiology of the genito-urinary & renal systems

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Case
You are tasked to a 53 yo male with increasing shortness of breath

Assessment
Patient is pale cool, clammy, looking fatigued and unwell, Dizzy
RR 28, SpO2 95%, BP 180/110, HR 75, Cap refill >3 secs,
ECG
Severe Hyperkalaemia ECG
Eyes, Pale conjunctiva, pupils EARRL size 2 sluggish, peri-orbital oedema
Lungs – bibasilar crepitations,
Normal heart sounds
Abdo distended, extremities pitting oedema to the sacrum,

PMHx
Nil allergies
End stage renal disease on haemodialysis x 3/week, HT, Diabetes, Hyperlipidaemia, Coronary artery disease, asthma
Medications – lisonopril, glargine, novorapid (Sliding scale), aspirin, simvastatin, salbutamol, breo, hydrocortisone cream,
FHx – HT, diabetes, CAD
Social history – smoker, occasional EToH, no recreational drugs

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